The Future of Antitrust

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
About the Coordinator ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 10
About the Authors…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
Section 1 Antitrust law and policy in the digital era: goals, legal tools, and economic
analysis …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20
· HIPSTER ANTITRUST AND THE BRAZILIAN LEGAL SYSTEM …………. 21
· THE CASE FOR CONSUMER CHOICE UNDER THE CONSUMER
WELFARE STANDARD ………………………………………………………………………. 34
· THE RELEVANCE OF BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS IN ANTITRUST ….. 50
· COMPETITION IN DIGITAL MARKETS: EXPERIENCES AND
PERSPECTIVES …………………………………………………………………………………… 58
· BRAZILIAN ANTITRUST POLICY FOR MULTI-SIDED DIGITAL
PLATFORMS: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS ………………………………………….. 71
· DATA OR DATA PROTECTION? ANTITRUST IMPLICATIONS OF A
MISSING DISTINCTION ……………………………………………………………………… 80
Section 2 Merger control …………………………………………………………………………………………. 91
· MERGER CONTROL IN THE DIGITAL ERA: SHOULD BRAZIL REVISE
ITS THRESHOLDS? …………………………………………………………………………….. 92
· THE NECESSITY OF ADJUSTING THE CURRENT MERGER
NOTIFICATION THRESHOLDS IN BRAZIL ……………………………………….. 102
· DO DIGITAL MARKETS REQUIRE A “NEW MERGER ANALYSIS”? … 113
· DIGITAL MARKETS AND RELEVANT MARKET DEFINITION:
CHALLENGES BROUGHT UP IN CADE’S RECENT DECISIONS ………. 121
· KILLER ACQUISITIONS IN INNOVATIVE MARKETS: SHOULD THE
ACQUISITION OF STARTUPS BE SUBJECT TO GREATER ANTITRUST
SCRUTINY? ………………………………………………………………………………………. 129
· MERGER CONTROL IN THE HEALTHCARE SECTOR: ANTITRUST
CHALLENGES IN VIEW OF THE RECENT CADE CASE LAW…………… 138
· COMPLEXITY DECLARATION IN MERGER CONTROL: CADE’S
RECENT CASE LAW …………………………………………………………………………. 145
· THE FUTURE OF MERGER REVIEW: NEW PERSPECTIVES FOR
“ASSOCIATIVE AGREEMENTS” ……………………………………………………….. 154

· BLACK SWANS, BANKRUPTCY, AND COMPETITION: A SCREENING
TEST TO IDENTIFY FAILING FIRMS ………………………………………………… 163
· BOEING-EMBRAER TIE-UP APPROVAL…………………………………………… 169
Section 3 Behavior control …………………………………………………………………………………….. 177
Subsection 3.1 General Aspects ……………………………………………………………………………… 178
· The future of antitrust: two important procedural flaws in Brazilian Antitrust
System and how to correct them ……………………………………………………………. 179
· TECHNOLOGY AND DIGITAL MARKETS: WHAT CHANGES IN THE
ANTITRUST CONDUCTS ANALYSIS? ………………………………………………. 186
· CADE ENFORCEMENT TRENDS BASED ON INVESTIGATIONS
OPENED IN 2019 ……………………………………………………………………………….. 196
Subsection 3.2 Agreements among competitors/ horizontal behavior ………………………. 206
· USE OF PRICING ALGORITHMS AND ANTITRUST ENFORCEMENT IN
BRAZIL ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 207
· LABOR PRACTICES AS ANTITRUST VIOLATIONS: TRENDS IN
BRAZIL AND WORLDWILDE …………………………………………………………… 214
· HUB-AND-SPOKE INFRINGEMENTS AND POSSIBLE UNFOLDING TO
CARTEL ENFORCEMENT IN BRAZIL ………………………………………………. 225
· THE USE OF ECONOMIC SCREENING IN BID-RIGGING CARTEL
INVESTIGATIONS …………………………………………………………………………….. 234
· DIGITAL ECONOMY AND THE SHARING OF COMPETITIVELYSENSITIVE
INFORMATION: NOTES ON THE BRAZILIAN ANTITRUST
FRAMEWORK AND EXPERIENCE AND THE CHALLENGES AHEAD 242
· WHAT IF THE LENIENCY AGREEMENT GETS KNOCKED OUT? …….. 251
Subsection 3.3 Unilateral behavior …………………………………………………………………………. 262
· RECENT TRENDS IN UNILATERAL CONDUCTS IN THE DIGITAL
MARKETS AND CADE’S APPROACH TO THIS TYPE OF CONDUCT .. 263
· ONLINE BANS: WHAT ARE THE CHALLENGES AHEAD? ……………….. 274
· BIG DATA, GEOPRICING AND GEOBLOCKING ………………………………. 284
· THE BUNDLED PAYMENTS MODEL GENERATES INCENTIVES TO
ANTICOMPETITIVE ACTS BY THE HEALTH INSURANCE COMPANIES
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 293

· INTERNET GIANTS AND ANTITRUST: THE GOOGLE SHOPPING CASE
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 301
Section 4 Competition advocacy and antitrust policy in specifically regulated markets
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 312
· COMPETITION ADVOCACY: THE IMPORTANCE OF CADE’S ROLE IN
THE PANDEMIC ……………………………………………………………………………….. 313
· ANTITRUST IN NEW REGULATORY PROCEEDINGS ………………………. 316
· THE BRAZILIAN COMPETITION POLICIES AND ITS (NON)
APPLICABILITY TO THE CRYPTOCURRENCY MARKET: A NATIONAL
REGULATION OVERVIEW ……………………………………………………………….. 327
· CONSTRAINTS CLAUSES OF MARKET SHARE IN THE PUBLIC
BIDDING PROCEEDINGS ………………………………………………………………….. 336
· OPEN BANKING IN BRAZIL: BETWEEN REGULATION &
COMPETITION ………………………………………………………………………………….. 345
· COMPETITION IN PAYMENTS IN BRAZIL: A CONVERGING AGENDA
FOR CADE AND THE CENTRAL BANK ……………………………………………. 355
· OPEN BANKING IN BRAZIL: POTENTIAL COMPETITION CONCERNS
AND WHAT COULD BE DONE …………………………………………………………. 364
Section 5 Antitrust litigation in Brazil: damages and beyond …………………………………. 375
· PUBLIC ANTITRUST ENFORCEMENT AND PRIVATE ACTIONS FOR
ANTITRUST DAMAGES: BUILDING A MODEL ………………………………… 376
· CIVIL DAMAGES CLAIMS: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE? …………… 383
· DAMAGE CLAIMS AND LENIENCY PROGRAMS: LEGISLATIVE
PERSPECTIVES IN BRAZIL ………………………………………………………………. 391
· DISCLOSURE OF LENIENCY MATERIALS IN BRAZIL: AN ANALYSIS
OF LEGISLATION, ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS AND COURT
DECISIONS ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 401
· PRIVATE ENFORCEMENT: ACCESS TO RELEVANT DOCUMENTS IN
BRAZIL ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 411
· PASS-ON DEFENSE: UPDATES AND NEW PERSPECTIVES RELATED TO
THE BILL 11,275/2018 ……………………………………………………………………….. 420
· COMPETITION LAW AND RIGHT TO DIGNITY: UNAVAILABLE
PUBLIC INTEREST AND FEDERAL JURISDICTION …………………………. 427
· ARBITRATION IN ANTITRUST DISPUTES ……………………………………….. 435